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Borrowed Theories Guiding Practice (graded)

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Borrowed Theories Guiding Practice (graded)

Greetings Class, This is your topic for TD2 and we will be meeting the following PO: 


Analyze theories from nursing and relevant fields with respect to their components, relationships among the components, logic of the propositions, comprehensiveness, and utility to advanced nursing. (PO #1)

Key Concepts:

·      Scope of borrowed theories and their application to the nursing profession.

·      Categories commonly used to organize nursing theories and how a theory fits into the category. 

Choose a borrowed theory and apply its framework to an advanced nursing issue (i.e., hositlity in the workplace, instituting bedside reporting, and shared leadership).
See you in the threads!

Dr. Bonney

Please answer this question:
Choose a borrowed theory and apply its framework to an advanced nursing issue (i.e., hostility in the workplace, instituting bedside reporting, and shared leadership).

PLEASE REFERENCES MAY NOT BE OLDER THAN 5 YEARS APA FORMAT

LESSON FOR DISSCUSSION QUESTION

There is an interesting and ongoing debate in the literature regarding the use or avoidance of theories from non-nursing disciplines. As a fledgling profession in the late 1800s and early 1900s, the vast majority of the knowledge base for nursing practice was borrowed from medicine. During the 1950s and later, nursing became determined to separate itself from medicine and establish itself as a unique profession. To do so, nursing needed to demonstrate the characteristics of a profession with one of these being the presence of a unique knowledge base.

Each profession needs to have a focus or object (i.e., another characteristic of a profession). The object or focus of a profession indicates the discrete aspect of reality that is the subject of the discipline (Parker & Smith, 2010).

The following table assists with understanding the object of a profession.

Discipline Primary Knowledge Base Focus or Object of Care Medicine Emphasis on biologic and pharmacologic theory Diagnosis and treatment of health alterations Nursing Emphasis on biologic, psychological, and social theories Emphasis on individuals as biopsychosocial beings to determine appropriate actions in order to foster health Pharmacy Emphasis placed on biologic, chemistry, and pathophysiology Provide safe and appropriate medications while educating the consumer Dietitians Emphasis on biologic, nutritional, and psychological theory Determine nutritional needs and provide appropriate interventions

 

Borrowed Theories Used By Nursing

Theories From Social Sciences

Theories from social sciences are integral to the discipline of nursing. Nurses in virtually all settings caring for vast groups of patients routinely use concepts and principles from social theories (McEwen & Wills, 2010). Sociologic theories are rich and substantively diverse. Because of this richness and diversity, their theory perspectives are relevant to the discipline of nursing. Social forces have a strong impact on wellness and health of individuals. Developing a sociological perspective in caring for patients is not always comfortable because it calls for confronting and questioning existing assumptions regarding social arrangements (Parker & Smith, 2010). The knowledge gained can benefit not only patients but healthcare and professional nurses, as well.

Feminist Theory

Gender differences and subordination have traditionally been viewed as inevitable, but some believe that gender is socially constructed and tends to justify the subordination and exploitation of women. This perspective has been determined to be too simplistic. In the 1960s, new views of feminism were presented. Feminist theory has been defined as an analysis of women’s perspectives and subordination within the family and other institutional settings (McEwen & Wills, 2010). 

Feminist theories have been frequently cited in nursing literature. Florence Nightingale wrote on gender roles with views on education, self-assessment, and self-development. In more contemporary writings, various views of feminism have included the relations to cultural diversity and nursing advocacy. Nursing research has been conducted using the feminist theory in performing qualitative studies and gaining an understanding of women’s perspectives (McEwen & Wills, 2010).

Critical Social Theory

Critical social theory uses societal awareness to expose social inequalities that keep people from reaching their full potential. It is derived from the belief that social meanings structure life through social domination. Proponents of critical social theory maintain that social exchanges not distorted by power imbalances will stimulate the evolution of more social justice (Parker & Smith, 2010). Furthermore, social critical theory assumes that truth is socially determined. Nursing research has been conducted using the critical social theory in understanding the perception of nursing as a female-dominated profession. For example, views of inequality that keep the profession of nursing from reaching its fullest potential (i.e., recognition and pay) (McEwen & Wills, 2010).

Theories From Behavioral Sciences

The behavioral science theories attempt to explain an individual’s behavior in terms related to the development of the self that is formed by adulthood. There are five families of theories that try to explain human behavior. Each theory emphasizes a different concept or viewpoint, but no one theory best explains the complexity of human behavior (McEwen & Wills, 2010). The behavioral theorists believe that behavior is learned by reinforcement; whereas, cognitive theorists believe that reinforcement are related to an individual’s thought patterns. Humanistic theories propose that individuals will have within themselves the capacity to change. The potential for healthy and creative growth occurs throughout an individual’s life span; thus, the behavior of an individual is a dynamic process. The stress-adaption theories are associated with behaviors identified with the way a person adapts to stress through individual coping mechanisms. The social-psychology theory looks at how a person changes and ways to incorporate those changes through the promotion of health. The following table provides brief comparisons of the five families of behavioral theories (Parker & Smith, 2010).

Theory

Theorist

Emphasis

Key Concepts

Psychodynamic

Erikson

Psychosocial factors that influence behavior

Id, ego, superego, conscious, unconscious

 

Freud

The study of unconscious mental processes of behavior

Personality structure: id, ego, superego , reality principle

Cognitive Behavior

Beck

Cognitive distortions

Overgeneralization, selectivity, magnification, assumptions

 

Skinner

Analysis of human behavior observed in the current situation

Operant conditioning, positive and negative reinforcement

Humanistic

Maslow

Fulfilling human potential

Hierarchy of needs, safety needs through self- actualization

 

Rogers

Person centered

Congruence and incongruence, positive regard and self-regard

Stress Adaption

Lazarus

Cognitive model of stress

Appraisal, coping, outcome

Social Psychology

Rosenstock

Perceived threat and net benefits

Benefits, perceived barriers, cues of action, self-efficacy

Each of the five families of behavioral theories have been extensively used in the nursing profession. For example, academic preparation, gaining an understanding of the phases of development and applying those stages in the practice setting, and understanding age-specific tendencies related to patient care (McEwen & Wills, 2010).

Reflection

 

Identify a borrowed theory from the behavioral sciences and think about how the theory’s framework enhances your understanding of behavioral issues of patients and families you provide care for or manage their hospital admission and among nurses (i.e., hostile work environment, lateral violence).

 

Learning Theories

Learning theories describe the processes used to bring about changes in the ways individuals understand information and changes in the ways they perform a task or skill. Learning theories can help provide a focus for creating an environment and conditions in which teaching can occur more effectively. A good learning theory enables you to make choices confidentially and consistently and to explain or define why you made the choice you did (McEwen & Wills, 2010). Thus, although nursing theory provides the framework for professional assessment of the patient's condition or needs and the specific language the nurse uses when making a diagnosis or charting, learning theory explains how this information is assimilated and suggests effective ways to present it to the patient as an intervention. Learning theory combined with nursing theory gives nurses guidance as they interact with patients (McEwen & Wills, 2010).

Social Cognitive Theory

Social cognitive theory is a learning theory based on the premise that people learn by watching others, which creates their development and understanding of the task at hand. Key factors in influencing development are through the continuous reciprocal interaction between the behavior, environmental influences, and cognition. For instance, a student observing a preceptor assessing a patient will change the student’s way of thinking when caring for older adult patients (cognition), as well as what the student encounters during a clinical rotation (environment influences) and will influence later behaviors when the student takes the role of a registered nurse (cognition) (Bandura, 2008).

Also, people are more likely to follow the behavior modeled by someone with whom they can identify. In our example, students are able to model the behavior of their preceptors because of emotional attachment and wanting to learn the behavior from someone whom they respect. Factors influencing the modeled behavior include attention, retention, and reproduction. An additional premise underlying social cognitive theory is the concept of self-efficacy. Self-efficacy is the learner’s ability to achieve the set goal. Students who believe they can learn nursing tasks during their clinical rotation will be much more motivated and successful in completing the goal (Bandura, 2008).

Constructivist Learning Theory

Constructivist learning environments (CLEs) tend to be more active than passive, meaning that learning occurs through strategies such as dialogue, collaboration, and cooperative endeavors. Students continuously assess and reassess the care for their patients by dialoguing with their preceptors, as well as collaboratively identify goals of safety for their patients. One of the advantages to the constructivist view is the focus placed on the holistic approach to create a learner-centered environment that is motivational, exciting, and engaging (Merriam, Caffarella, & Baumgartner, 2007).

Constructivist thinking is based on the following principles: (a) learning is an active process; (b) students tend to learn as they learn; (c) reflective activity must be provided; (d) language we use influences learning; (e) learning is social and contextual; (f) learning needs previous knowledge on which to build; and (g) learning takes time and requires motivation (Merriam, Caffarella, & Baumgartner, 2007; Schunk, 2012). Learner participation or control is an important element in the CLE because it provides the learner with opportunities to participate in practicing the skill while constructing meaning.

The distinct advantage to CLEs is the importance placed on the social and cultural aspects of learning and the learning community (Merriam, Caffarella, & Baumgartner, 2007). This is certainly indicative of the new paradigm of the informationage in which team, relationships, and initiative are stressed. The CLE, however, also presents roadblocks. For example, a nursing student new to the online learning setting and not comfortable with adult techniques and technology may not accept ownership and responsibility for his or her own learning. Thus, the values of the CLE are essential for the critical thinking and collaboration skills that need to be developed (Merriam, Caffarella, & Baumgartner, 2007).

Transformational Learning Theory

Another theory of debate and ongoing research is that of transformational learning, which involves change in the individual. Transformational learning is not only social but a solitary process requiring critical reflection. 

Transformational learning is a process of change, which sometimes does not always seem rational, even for students who are motivated. Professor Mezirow has worked over the past two decades on an evolving transformation theory that attempts to delineate generic dimensions and processes of learning and its implications for educators of adults. His work expands transformational learning and supports the idea that if students are not able to express feelings, they are unable to begin the process of critical reflection (Merriam, Caffarella, & Baumgartner, 2007). Faculty must be able to encourage and promote critical reflection and critical discourse, provide opportunities to apply new knowledge, and foster intellectual openness (McGonagall, 2005). The transformational learning process is about how we know. Therefore, faculty must provide an open environment in which intellectual openness is encouraged and trust is fostered, group ownership is encouraged, affective learning is fostered, and the course content is value laden (Merriam, Caffarella, & Baumgartner, 2007). 

Reflection

What borrowed theory in conjunction with a nursing theory would you use to enhance your knowledge about implementing an education or leadership practicum for graduate students?

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