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# A study found that a man who is a cigarette smoker has a risk of having a heart attack 5 times greater than a man who is a non-smoker

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A study found that a man who is a cigarette smoker has a risk of having a heart attack 5 times greater than a man who is a non-smoker. Which of the following statistics is quoted in this statement?

A) Baseline risk

B) Risk

C) Increased risk

D) Relative risk

2.

A study reported that individuals who don't consume omega 3 fatty acids are 20% more likely to have heart disease than those that do consume them. The number 20% is which of the following?

A) Baseline risk

B) Risk

C) Increased risk

D) Relative risk

3.

Suppose a 1/2-pack-or-more-of-cigarettes-a-day smoker has a 200% increased risk of a certain type of serious facial skin condition. How do you interpret this?

A) You had better stop smoking, a 200% increase is a huge difference.

B) You need to find out what the baseline risk is and what confounding variables were adjusted for before you can determine how serious this is for you.

C) You should just continue smoking a ½ pack or more per day; no one could possibly come up with a valid statistic that measures this.

4.

If we have a relative risk of 1.0, which of the following statements is/are true? (Select all that apply)

A) the increased risk is 0%

B) the odds ratio cannot be computed

C) the risks for each of the two groups are equal

Use the information below to answer the questions that follow:

200 randomly selected adult females and 200 randomly selected adult males were checked for high blood pressure. The collected data is summarized in the following contingency table.

What proportion of the entire sample had high blood pressure?

A) 80/200 = .40

B) 130/400 = .325

C) 270/400 = .675

D) 50/200 = .25

6.

What is the relative risk of high blood pressure when comparing males to females.

A) (80/200)/(50/200) = .40/.25 = 1.60

B) (80/120)/(50/150) = .6667/.3333 = 2.0

C) (120/200)/(150/200) = .60/.75 = .80

D) (50/200)/(80/200) = .25/.40 = .625

7.

If the relative risk of having high blood pressure comparing males to females is 1.60, what is the increased risk comparing males to females?

A) 160%

B) 60%

C) -60%

D) 40%

8.

What is the odds ratio of having high blood pressure when comparing males to females?

A) (80/200)/(50/200) = 1.60

B) (50/80)/(150/120) = .50

C) (80/120)/(50/150) = 2.0

D) (80/150)/(120/50) = .22

9.

If the odds for females is smaller than the odds for males, then the odds ratio comparing females to males will be?

A) negative

B) impossible to calculate

C) above 0 and smaller than 1.0 (0 < odds ratio < 1.0)

D) greater than 1.0

10. A STAT 100 survey asked 240 students whether or not they had ever used the drug ecstasy. The collected data is summarized in the following contingency table. |

The risk of females trying ecstasy and the risk of males trying ecstasy are?

A) 144/160 for females and 71/80 for males

B) 16/25 for females and 9/25 for males

C) 144/215 for females and 71/215 for males

D) 16/160 for females and 9/80 for males

Use the information below to answer the questions that follow: A survey asked 2000 people whether or not they frequently exceed the speed limit. The collected data is summarized in the following contingency table. |

In this exercise, the undesirable trait (outcome) is saying "yes" to the question about frequently driving above the speed limit. Below are the calculated risks for each age group.

Age under 40: Risk = (number with trait)/total = 600/1000 = .6 (60%)

Age 40 and above: Risk = (number with trait)/total = 450/1000 = .45 (45%)

Using these risks as our basis, the relative risk is 1.33 and the increased risk is 33%. You will have two sentences, one sentence explaining for the relative risk and one sentence explaining for the increased risk. Be precise.

12. You are given that the risk of frequently speeding is .60 for those under 40 and is .45 for those 40 and older. Therefore, the relative risk of frequently speeding comparing those under 40 to those 40 and older is (.60/.45) = 1.33. What would be the relative risk if we now compare those 40 and older to those under 40 (now relative risk = (risk for those 40 and older)/(risk for those under 40))?

A) -1.33

B) .75

C) -.33

D) .33

Use the information below to answer the questions that follow: An automobile company is testing to see if certain variables influence whether a person prefers a blue car or a silver car. 1200 randomly chosen women and 1200 randomly chosen men were asked which of the two colors they preferred. The contingency table of the results is below: |

Among the two age groups: What is the proportion of those under 30 who prefer a blue car and what is the proportion of those 30 and older who prefer a blue car?

A) (400/1200)= .3333 = 33.33% of those under 30 and (600/1200)= .50 = 50% of those 30 and older

B) (300/800)= .375 = 37.5% of those under 30 and (200/400)=.50 = 50% of those 30 and older

C) (100/400)= .25 = 25% of those under 30 and (400/800)= .50 = 50% of those 30 and older

D) (800/1200)= .6667 = 66.67% of those under 30 and (600/1200)= .50 = 50% of those 30 and older

14.

Among males and females: What is the proportion of females who prefer a blue car and what is the proportion of males who prefer a blue car?

A) (100/400)= .25 = 25% of females and (300/800)= .375 = 37.5% of males

B) (400/800)= .50 = 50% of females and (200/400)= .50 = 50% of males

C) (500/1200) = .4167 = 41.67% of females and (500/1200)= .4167 = 41.67% of males

D) (500/2400) = .2083 = 20.83% of females and (500/2400)= .2083 = 20.83% of males

15. After reading the article by Arthur Smith (click on link: http://www.stateoftheusa.org/content/at-the-plate-a-statistical-puz.php), state a probable reason why the overall proportion of adults with a Body Mass Index over 30 differs from the proportions when broken down by race.
Please provide your reasoning for Mississippi vs. Alabama, then for Louisiana vs. Kansas, then for Louisiana vs Iowa, and finally for the District of Columbia vs Massachusetts. |